Olga's Gallery

New Testament Notes

See also Religion Notes Index.

Passions of Christ, the following episodes are usually included:
See: Hans Holbein The Passion of Christ.

On the Mount of Olives (Matthew 26:30-35; Mark 14:26-31; Luke 21:39-45).
Following the Last Supper Jesus with his disciples went to the mount of Olives. Then Jesus said to them that ‘tonight you will all lose faith because of me; for it is written: “I will strike the shepherd and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.” But after I am raised, I shall go ahead of you into Galilee.'  Peter replied, ‘Everyone else may lose faith because of you, but I never will’.  And Jesus answered, that ‘tonight before the cock crows you will disown me three times.’ (Matthew 26: 31-35).
See: Duccio di Buoninsegna. Maestà: The Prayer on the Mount of Olives.

Agony in the Garden, after the Mount of Olives, Jesus went up to the Garden of Gethsemane. He took with him Peter, James and John. He prayed there to his father Lord, begging him to release him from crucifixion.
In painting this episode is often depicted with three apostles asleep, while Jesus is praying, with an angel to console Him. The chalice or cup mentioned by Christ in His prayer, "if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it" (Matthew 26:42), finds its place in the hand of the angel, sometimes the angel also carries a cross.
See: Albrecht Altdorfer The Agony in the Garden.
Fra Angelico. Agony in the Garden.
Nikolay Gay Christ and the Disciples Going out into the Garden of Gethsemane after the Last Supper.
Aert de Gelder. Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane.
El Greco The Agony in the Garden, The Agony in the Garden.
Jan Gossaert. The Agony in the Garden.
Hans Holbein the Elder The Agony in the Garden.
Andrea Mantegna. Agony in the Garden.
Pontormo. The Agony in the Garden.
Paolo Veronese. Christ in the Garden. Agony in the Garden.

Arrest of Christ, this event is usually divided into two episodes: the Kiss of Judas, by which the traitor showed the wanted man, Jesus, and the arrest itself. After the arrest the disciples flee. The tradition links Judas’ betrayal to Cain’s murder of his brother Abel.
See: Hieronymus Bosch Arrest of Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane.
Caravaggio The Betrayal of Christ.
Duccio di Buoninsegna. Maestà: The Betrayal by Judas, Maestà: The Seizing of Jesus.
Anthony van Dyck The Arrest of Christ.
Fra Angelico. Arrest of Christ.
Giotto The Kiss of Judas. The Betrayal of Judas.
Russian Icon. The Flagellation of Christ. Taking Christ into Captivity. Bearing the Cross. The Crusifixion.

Trial of Jesus. After the arrest, Christ was handed over to the jurisdiction of the Sanhedrin. First, He is brought in front of Annas (John 18:12-23), the father-in-law of the high priest Caiaphas. After interrogation he then sent Jesus to Caiaphas. (Matthew 26:57-68; Mark 14:53-65; Luke 22:66-71). Christ in answer to Caiaphas's questions said that he was the awaited Messiah and the Son of the God. Caiaphas constituted that Jesus was guilty in blasphemy, punishable in Jewish law by death.
See: Duccio di Buoninsegna. Maestà: Jesus Before Annas, Maestà: Jesus Before Caiaphas, Maestà: Jesus Accused by the Pharisees.
Giotto Christ Before Caiphus.
After interrogation Caiaphas handed Him over to the guards, who beat him, spat into his face and mocked him. This episode is treated separately in art as Christ Mocked.
See: Duccio di Buoninsegna. Maestà: Jesus Mocked.
Fra Angelico. The Mockery of Christ.
Matthias Grünewald The Mocking of Christ.
Jan Sanders van Hemessen. Christ Mocked.

The guards brought Christ to the Roman governor of Judaea, Pontius Pilate. After interrogation Pilate could “find no fault in this man” and sent Him, since He was Galilean, to Herod, the then King of Galilee. This last mocked Christ and sent Him back to Pilate, who proposed to release Him. But the high priests present cried that Christ should be crucified, while the other man, Barabbas, who was under the trial for murder simultaneously with Christ, should be released on the spot. Pilate then washed his hands, saying “I am innocent of the blood of this just person; he then released Barabbas, had Jesus scourged, and handed him over for crucifixion.
See: Duccio di Buoninsegna. Maestà: Jesus Before Pontius Pilate, Maestà: Jesus Before King Herod, Maestà: Pontius Pilate’s Second Interrogation of Christ, Maestà: Pontius Pilate Washing his Hands.
Nikolay Gay "Quod Est Veritas?" Christ and Pilate.
Pontormo. Christ Standing before Pilate.
Jacopo Robusti, called Tintoretto. Christ before Pilate.

Flagellation and Crowning with Thorns, this episode takes place after interrogation by Pilate, who washes his hands and delivers Jesus over to soldiers, who beat Him with whips stuck with lead and fragments of bone; after that the soldiers dress Him in purple, give Him a reed sceptre and put on His head a crown made of thorns, then they marched past Him, shouting “Hail, King of Jews!”
See: Hieronymus Bosch Christ Crowned with Thorns, Christ Crowned with Thorns. 
William-Adolphe Bouguereau. The Flagellation of Christ.
Caravaggio Flagellation of Christ, The Flagellation of Christ.
Petrus Christus Chtist as the Man of Sorrows.
Duccio di Buoninsegna. Maestà: The Flagellation, Maestà: The Crown of Thorns.
Albrecht Dürer Christ as the Man of Sorrows.
Anthony van Dyck  The Crowning with Thorns.
Fra Angelico. Flagellation.
Giotto. The Mocking of Christ and Flagellation.
Ivan Kramskoy. Mocking Christ. "Hail, King of the Jews!".
Piero della Francesca. Flagellation.
Jusepe de Ribera. Christ in the Crown of Thorns.
Russian Icon. The Flagellation of Christ. Taking Christ into Captivity. Bearing the Cross. The Crusifixion.
Luca Signorelli. The Flagellation.
Titian Christ Crowned with Thorns.

Ecce Homo, Latin for “Behold the man”, words of Pontius Pilate. The episode occurs after Jesus’ Flagellation and the Crowning with Thorns. As the soldiers jeer at Christ “Hail, King of the Jews!” Pilate announces that he is about to produce the accused to the high priests and says “Behold the man!”. When they see Christ they all cry out that he should be crucified.
See: Hieronymus Bosch Ecce Homo, Ecce Homo.
Caravaggio Ecce Homo.
Honore Daumier. Ecce Homo.
Aert de Gelder. Ecce Homo.
Rembrandt. Christ Shown to the People.
Titian Ecce Homo, Ecce Homo.

Carrying the Cross and Crucifixion, the execution for slaves in Ancient Rome. Christ was commanded to carry His cross to the place of execution on the mount of Calvary.
See: Hieronymus Bosch Christ Carrying the Cross, Christ Carrying the Cross, Christ Carrying the Cross, Christ Carrying the Cross. 
William-Adolphe Bouguereau. Christ Meeting His Mother on the Way to Calvary.
Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The Procession to Calvary.
Maurice Denis. The Road to Calvary/Montée au calvaire ou Le Calvaire.
Duccio di Buoninsegna. Maestà: The Road to Calvary.
El Greco. Christ Carrying the Cross.
Fra Angelico. Christ Carrying the Cross.
Giotto. The Carrying of the Cross.
Lorenzo Lotto The Carrying of the Cross.
Pontormo. The Ascent to Calvary.
Russian Icon. The Flagellation of Christ. Taking Christ into Captivity. Bearing the Cross. The Crusifixion.
Martin Schongauer. The Carrying of the Cross.
Christ Stripped of His Clothes is the scene which preceded the crucifixion itself. The soldiers cast lots for His clothes and tear off His garments.
See: El Greco The Disrobing of Christ.Disrobing of Christ.
Crucifixion. At Golgotha Jesus was crucified. A sign above His head said that Crucified was “Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews”. A crowd gathered, near to the Cross stood Christ’s mother, the Virgin, his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene”. (John 19:25) There are three crosses on Golgotha: that of Christ, and those of two thieves on the left and on the right of Him.
See: Albrecht Altdorfer Crucifixion,The Crucifixion.
Altichiero da Zevio. Crucifixion.
Antonello da Messina. Crucifixion. Crusifixion.

Hans Baldung The Crucifixion.
Giovanni Bellini. Crucifixion.
Herri Met de Bles. Procession to Golgotha.
Hieronymus Bosch Christ on Cross with Donors and Saints.
Jan Brueghel the Elder. The Great Calvary.
Andrea del Castagno. Crucifixion. Crucifixion. Crucifixion and Saints.
Pietro Cavallini. Crucifixion.
Francesco del Cossa. The Crucifixion.
Lucas Cranach the Elder The Crucifixion, The Crucifixion with the Converted Centurion.
Gerard David. The Crucifixion.
Jacques-Louis David. Christ on the Cross.
Maurice Denis. The Offertory at Calvary/Offrande au Calvaire.
Dionysius. The Crucifixion.
Duccio di Buoninsegna. Maestà: The Crucifixion.
Giusto de' Menabuoi. The Crucifixion.
El Greco. Christ on the Cross with Landscapes.
Jan van Eyck The Crucifixion.
Hubert and Jan van Eyck The Crucifixion. The Last Judgment.
Fra Angelico. Christ on the Cross Adored by St. Dominic. Christ Being Nailed to the Cross. St. Dominic with the Crucifix - Piercing of the Christ's Side.
Nikolay Gay The Calvary.
Giotto. The Crucifixion.
El Greco Christ on Cross Adored by Two Donors.
Maerten Jacobsz van Heemskerch. Golgotha. Golgotha.
Andrea Mantegna. Calvary.
Masaccio Crucifixion.
Matthias Grünewald Crucifixion, Crucifixion, The Small Crucifixion.
Hans Memling Crucifixion.
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo Crucifixion.
Pietro Perugino. The Crucifixion with the Virgin, St. John, St. Jerome and St. Mary Magdalene.
Pablo Picasso. Crucifixion.
Piero della Francesca. Crucifixion.
Nicolas Poussin. The Crucifixion.
Raphael Crucifixion.
Rembrandt. The Raising of the Cross.
Peter Paul Rubens Christ on the Cross, The Elevation of the Cross.
Russian Icon. The Flagellation of Christ. Taking Christ into Captivity. Bearing the Cross. The Crusifixion.
Luca Signorelli. The Crucifixion with St. Mary Magdalen. Crucifixion.
Simone Martini. The Road to Calvary.
Jacopo Robusti, called Tintoretto. Crucifixion.
Titian Crucifixion.
Diego Velázquez. Christ Crucified.
Rogier van der Weyden Crucifixion Triptych, Crucifixion, Crucifixion Diptych, Crucifixion.
Francisco de ZurbaránCrucifixion.

Lamentation (also Deposition, Pieta) – after Jesus’ death, Joseph of Arimathea obtained Pilate's permission to bury His body. The closest people took the body from the cross, washed it and buried in a new tomb, not yet used for burial; and there, since it was the eve of the Jewish Sabbath, they laid Jesus. (John19:38-42).
See: Sofonisba Anguissola. Pieta.
Hans Baldung The Lamentation.
Giovanni Bellini. Pietà. Pietà. Lamentation over the Dead Christ. Pesaro Altarpiece. Pietà. Pietà.
Alessandro Botticelli Lamentation over the Dead Christ.
Agnolo Bronzino. Pieta with Mary Magdalene. Lamentation. Descent from the Cross and Lamentation. Lamentation. Pieta.
Cima da Conegliano. The Deposition.
Gerard David. The Virgin Embracing the Dead Christ. The Deposition.
Eugène Delacroix Pieta.
Duccio di Buoninsegna. Maestà: The Deposition.
Albrecht Dürer Lamentation for Christ.
Jean Fouquet. Pieta.
Fra Angelico. The Deposition. Lamentation over the Dead Christ.
Giotto  Lamentation.
Hugo van der Goes The Lamentation (The Three Marys and John the Evangelist), The Lamentation.
Jan Gossaert. Descent from the Cross.
Benozzo Gozzoli. Descent from the Cross.
Jacob Jordaens. Pieta.
Filippino Lippi and Pietro Perugino. The Deposition from the Cross, Filippino Lippi. Pieta.
Pietro Lorenzetti. The Deposition.
Quentin Massys. Lamentation.
Michelangelo Pieta, Pieta, Pieta Rondanini.
Pietro Perugino. Pietà, Lamentation Over the Dead Christ, Pieta.
Pontormo. Lamentation. Deposition of Christ.
Nicolas Poussin The Lamentation over Christ, The Lamentation over Christ, Descend from the Cross.
Rembrandt. The Descent from the Cross, The Descent from the Cross, The Descent from the Cross.
Peter Paul Rubens The Lamentation, The Descent from the Cross,
Jusepe de Ribera. The Deposition.
Simone Martini. The Deposition.
Jacopo Robusti, called Tintoretto. Deposition of the Christ.
Cosme Tura. Pietà. Pietà.
Paolo Veronese. Lamentation of Christ. The Dead Christ Supported by Two Mourning Angels.
Mikhail Vrubel. Pietà., Pietà.
Rogier van der Weyden Deposition, Lamentation of Christ, Pieta, Lamentation of Christ, Lamentation.

Jesus According to Scripture: Restoring the Portrait from the Gospels by Darrell L. Bock. Baker Academic, 2002.
Studying the Historical Jesus: A Guide to Sources and Methods by Darrell L. Bock. Baker Academic, 2002.
Jesus According to Paul by Victor Paul Furnish (Author). Cambridge University Press, 1994.
The Faith of Jesus Christ: The Narrative Substructure of Galatians 3:1-4:11 (The Biblical Resource Series) by Richard B. Hays, Luke Timothy Johnson. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001.
The Nazarene by Sholem Asch, Maurice Samuel (Translator), Herbert Lockyer. Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1996.
The Gospel According to the Son by Norman Mailer. Ballantine Books, 1999.
Parables of Jesus by James Montgomery Boice. Moody Publishers, 1983.
The Historical Figure of Jesus by E. P. Sanders. Penguin Books, 1996.
The Historical Jesus : The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant by John Dominic Crossan. Harper San Francisco, 1993.
Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews: A Jewish Life and the Emergence of Christianity by Paula Fredriksen. Vintage Books USA, 2000.
From Jesus to Christ: The Origins of the New Testament Images of Jesus (Yale Nota Bene) by Paula Fredriksen. Yale University Press, 2000.
Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig Blomberg. Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1997.

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