c.1512. Oil on panel. National Gallery, London, UK. Read Note.
Julius II (1443-1513), pope from 1503, born Guiliano della Rovere in Albizuola, nephew of Sixtus IV. His public career was mainly devoted to political and military enterprises for the re-establishment of papal sovereignty in its ancient territory and for the eradication of foreign domination in Italy. Julius II was a liberal patron of arts, he employed Bramante for the design of St. Peter's cathedral, which began in 1506, had Raphael brought to Rome to decorate his private apartments and commissioned Michelangelo for the frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and for his own tomb. His military exploits inspired Erasmus' satire Julius Exclusus