The Stroganoffs is a family of Russian merchants, industrialists and
nobles of the XVI-XX centuries. They come from peasants of Archangelsk.
The first one known in history is Anikei Fiodorovich (1497-1570), owner
of salt production enterprises; in 1558 he got big estates on the Kama
and Chusivaya rivers from the Tsar Ioann
IV the Terrible. His heirs – Semeon (died 1609) and grandsons Maxim
Yakovlevich (died in the 1620s) and Nikita Grigorievich (died in the 1620s)
organized the war expedition of Yermak to Siberia in 1581. (These members
of the family are mentioned in The
Ringed Castle by Dorothy Dunnett, fifth book in the Lymond
Grigory Dmitrievich (1656-1715) united all of the Stroganoffs’ estates. During the North Wars between Russian and Sweden 1700-21 the Stroganoffs offered great assistance to Peter I. In 1722, three brothers, Alexander Grigorievich, Nikolay Grigorievich and Sergei Grigorievich became barons.
(also Stroganov), Sergei Grigorievich (1707-1758), Baron, Chamberlain,
collector of fine arts, founder of the Stroganoff Picture Gallery, was
married to Sophia Kirillovna, nèe Naryshkina, they had one son Alexander
Sergeevich Stroganoff (also Stroganov) (1733-1811).
See: Ivan Nikitin. Portrait of Baron S. G. Stroganoff.
Sergeevich Stroganoff (also Stroganov) (1733-1811), Count, son of Baron
Sergei Grigorievich Stroganoff and his wife Sophia Kirillovna, nèe
Naryshkina, Secret Councilor and the President of the Academy of Arts (1800-1811),
was born January 3, 1733. At the age of 19 he was sent by his father to
continue education abroad. He lived for 2 years in Geneva, visiting lectures
of famous professors, then traveled throughout Italy, where he studied
art and started his own collection of art. In Paris he lived for 2 years
and studied physics, chemistry and metallurgy, visited factories and manufacturing
plants. In 1757 he returned home and married Countess Anna Mikhailovna
Vorontsova (1743-1769), the daughter of the Vice-Chancellor. In 1760 he
received the title of Count of the Holy Roman Empire from the Austrian
Royal court. After 6 years of unhappy marriage the spouses separated and
started a divorce proccess, which stopped however because of the death
of Anna Mikhailovna.
Soon Stroganoff married Princess Ekaterina Petrovna Trubetskaya (1744-1815). This marriage also failed. The couple lived in Paris for several years, in 1779 they returned to St. Petersburg and soon the countess fell in love with Catherine’s II favorite, Ivan Nikolaevich Korsakov. After Korsakov was sent away from the court, she went with him to Moscow, leaving her only son, Paul, to her husband. Count Stroganoff devoted himself to his son.
He was one of the most intimate friends of Catherine II, traveled with her much in Russia, and was a constant partner in cards. She liked him for wit, independence and that he did not interfere in politics. He had a favor with the next emperors, Paul I and his wife Empress Maria Fedorovna, and Alexander I. In 1810, he was appointed the member of the State Council.
Stroganoff was a patron of arts; he made up good collections of paintings, graphic works, coins, etc. Since 1800 through 1811 he was the President of the Academy of Arts.
See: Johann Baptist Lampi the Elder. Portrait of Count Alexander Stroganoff.
Jean-Laurent Mosnier. Portrait of Count Alexander Stroganoff, the President of the Academy of Arts (1800-1811).
(also Paul) Aleksandrovich Stroganoff (1772-1817), Count, Senator,
Secret Councilor, Lieutenant General, was the only son of Count Alexander
Sergeevich Stroganoff (1733-1811), the President of the Academy of Arts.
Pavel Stroganoff was born in Paris in 1774. His mother, Ekaterina (or Catherine)
Petrovna, nèe Princess Trubetskaya, soon fell in love with another
man and left her husband and small son. Count Alexander invited a French
tutor, Jilbert Romme, to bring up and educate his son. Jilbert Romme used
travels as a means of education; the teacher and the pupil traveled much
in Russia, then, in 1787 went abroad, first to Switzerland, then, in 1789
to Paris. The revolutionary events in France captured not only J. Romme,
but his Russian pupil as well. Romme founded the Friends of Law Club, and
the young Count Stroganoff became its member; they both became members
of the Jacobite Club.
By demand of Catherine II, Count Alexander asked his son to return home immediately. Pavel had to subordinate and came to Russia in December 1790. Catherine II ordered him to stay in his estate Bratzovo, near Moscow. There he married, in 1793, Princess Sophia Vladimirovna Golitsina (1775-1845), and there, in 1794, their son, Alexander (1794-1814) was born. After Catherine’s II death Count Pavel Stroganoff could come to St. Petersburg, where Paul I promoted him to a Chamberlain. Stroganoff made a strong impression on the Grand Duke Alexander Petrovich (future emperor Alexander I). Both young men discussed revolutionary ideas, the future political reforms in Russia, liberation of the serfs, necessity of education of the population, etc. When in 1801 Alexander I ascended to the throne he was eager to undertake the reforms, but the conservative party had stronger positions than the reformers. France was also marching from “Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité” into an empire. Alexander I betrayed his youthful ideals. Stroganoff was bitterly disappointed. A Senator and a Secret Councilor, he, in 1807, joined the army, which was engaged in Napoleonic Wars in Europe. His further military career was a testament of his brilliant abilities. He reached the rank of Lieutenant General and commanded an army corps in Napoleonic campaigns of 1811-1815. He was wounded several times and had many military awards, including the order of St. George, 2nd degree. In 1813 Pavel Alexandrovich took his only son, Alexander, to the army in the field. They participated in the battle of Leipzig. February 23, 1814 in the battle of Craon the young Alexander was killed. Pavel Alexandrovich died June 10, 1817.
See: Jean-Laurent Mosnier. Portrait of Count Pavel Stroganoff (1772-1817). Portrait of Count Alexander Stroganoff (1794-1814).
Sophia Vladimirovna Stroganoff (1775-1845), daughter of Prince Vladimir
Borisovich Golitsin and Princess Natalya Petrovna, nèe Countess
Tchernyshova, was born November 11, 1775. She spent her childhood and early
youth abroad and got there a good education, but her Russian suffered and
on her return home she had to work much to improve her native tongue. She
did it brilliantly and later even translated some Western poetry, including
Dante’s Divine Comedy, into Russian. In 1793 she married count Pavel
Alexandrovich Stroganoff (1772-1817).
Sophia Vladimirovna and Pavel Alexandrovich had one son Alexander (1794- k.i.a. 1814) and four daughters: Nataly (1796-1872), Adelaide (1799-1882), Elizabeth and Olga (1807-1837). The early deaths of her son and husband produced a deep impression on her. For several months she was between life and death herself. Tender support of her daughters and family helped her to recover. She remained the only heir to the Stroganovs titles and estates.
After the death of their only son Alexander, Pavel Alexandrovich asked the tsar to allow his elder daughter Nataly inherit the right of primogeniture for the Stroganovs’ titles and estates after his and his wife’s deaths. Natalia’s husband was to inherit the title of Count Stroganoff. The parents tried to find the future husband for Nataly among their kin, in another branch of the Stroganoffs, barons. Their choice fell on Baron Sergey Grigorievich Stroganoff (1794-1882) (He is on the portrait with his mother as a child by Vigée-Lebrun: Baroness Anna Sergeevna Stroganova and Her Son Sergey), son of Baron, later Count, Grigory Alexandrovich Stroganoff (1769-1857), a diplomat, Secret Councilor and member of the State Council, third cousin of Count Pavel Alexandrovich, and his wife Anna Sergeevna, nèe Princess Trubetskaya. The young man first refused that honor, but after acquaintance with his hypothetical fiancé, fell in love with her and changed his mind. Sergey and Nataly had four sons and two daughters. Their marriage founded the new line of the Counts of Stroganoff.
See: Jean-Laurent Mosnier. Portrait of Countess Sophia Stroganoff.
Louise-Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun. Baroness Anna Sergeevna Stroganova and Her Son Sergey. Portrait of Baron Grigory Alexandrovich Stroganoff (1769-1857).
Alexander Nikolayevich (1740-1789), Baron, son of Baron Nikolay
Grigoryevich Stroganoff and Praskovya Ivanovna, née Buturlina. He
was in military service, retired in the rank of General-in-Chief. Married
to Elisaveta Alexandrovna Zagryazhskaya, by whom he had one son Grigory
(later Count) and daughters Ekaterina (Catherine) and Elisaveta (Elizabeth).
See: Dmitry Levitzky. Portrait of Baron A. N. Stroganoff.
later Count,Grigory Alexandrovich Stroganoff (1769-1857) son of
Nikolayevich; a diplomat, Secret Councilor and member of the State
Council, married to Anna Sergeevna, nèe Princess Trubetskaya.
Their son, Sergey married his third cousin Nataly Stroganoff; their marriage
founded the new line of the Counts of Stroganoff.
See: Louise-Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun. Baroness Anna Sergeevna Stroganova and Her Son Sergey. Portrait of Baron Grigory Alexandrovich Stroganoff (1769-1857).
(Catherine) Alexandrovna (1769- ) daughter of Alexander Nikolayevich
and twin sister of Grigory Alexandtovich. In marriage Naryshkina.
See: Jean-Louis Voille. Portrait of Catherine Stroganova (1769-1844) as a Child.
Elizaveta (Elizabeth) Alexandrovna (1779-1818), daughter of Alexander
Nikolayevich, see Demidova,
Famous Russians in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Lenizdat. St. Petersburg. 1996. (In Russian)
Paintings of the 18th - early 20th centuries from the Reserves of the Russian Museum. Leningrad. 1982. (In Russian)
Vsemirny Biographichesky Encyclodepichesky Slovar. Moscow. 1998. (In Russian)