I (19 November 1600- 3- January1649) king of England, Scotland and
Ireland from 1625 until his execution in 1649, second son of James VI and
I and Anne of Denmark. He married Henrietta
Maria, sister of French king Louis XIV in 1625, after he succeeded
his father in March 1625. He was under the influence of the Duke of Buckingham
until his assassination in 1628. Three Parliaments were summoned and dismissed
in the first four years of his reign; then for eleven years Charles ruled
without one. His extension of the ship tax to the inland counties met resistance
of the landowners and his attempt in 1637 to anglicize the Scottish Church
resulted in the active resistance of the Scots. In 1640, Charles was forced
to summon the Parliament to raise money for the war. The "Short Parliament"
was dismissed in 3 weeks, the "Long Parliament" outlasted the King. Parliament
demanded from Charles to remove his chief advisors the Earl
of Strafford and Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. The Earl of Strafford
was sacrificed by the King to insure the Queen's safety and was executed
in May 1641 by the Act of Parliament. Charles was also forced to sign a
doucment which stated that the existing parliament would not be dissolved
without his own consent. In 1642, Charles tried to arrest five members
of the Parliament, which led to the Civil War (1642-1646). Charles was
defeated and on the 5th of May, 1646 he surrendered to the Scots at Newark.
He was subjected to trial at Westminster. Charles faced it bravely and
with dignity. Thrice he refuse to plead, denying the competence of such
a court, he was found guilty and sentenced to public execution. On the
30th of January 1649 he died on the scaffold in front of the Whitehall
with a courage worthy of a martyr. Charles had six children, who outlived
Charles II (1630-1685), James II (1633-1701), Mary, Princess of Orange (1631-1660), Elizabeth (1635-1650), Henry, Duke of Gloucester (1639-1660) and Henrietta Anne, Duchess of Orleans (1644-1670).
See: Anthony van Dyck. Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria with Charles, Prince of Wales and Princess Mary. Equestrian Portrait of Charles I, King of England with Seignior de St. Antoine. Charles I, King of England, at the Hunt. Children of Charles I. Charles I, King of England. Children of Charles I. Equestrian Portrait of Charles I, King of England.