Jean (Hans) Arp, born in Alsace, is associated with several art movements of the twentieth century. In 1911 he was influenced by the abstractions of Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) and participated in his Der Blaue Reiter exhibitions in Munich; later Cubism greatly impressed him. Then he was interested by the idea of spontaneous creativity of the human subconscious mind and this idea became dominant in his art. He created collages with torn paper, letting the pieces fall freely on a surface and then gluing them to the places where they fell down. (Before my Birth
.) He also tried automatism (involuntary or unconscious action) in writing his poems.