1650. Oil on canvas. Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome, Italy. Read Note.
Pope Innocent X (Jambattista Pamfili) (1644-1655). Jambattista Pamfili was born in Rome on May 6, 1574. His parents were Camillo Pamfili and Flaminia de Bubalis. As a young man Jambattista studied jurisprudence at the Collegio Romano and graduated as bachelor of laws at the age of twenty. Soon afterwards Clement VIII appointed him consistorial advocate and auditor of the Rota. Gregory XV made him nuncio at Naples. Urban VIII sent him as datary with the cardinal legate, Francesco Barberini, to France and Spain, then appointed him titular Latin Patriarch of Antioch, and nuncio at Madrid. He was created Cardinal-Priest of Saint Eusebio in August 1626. He was a member of the congregations of the Council of Trent, the Inquisition, and Jurisdiction and Immunity. In 1644, a conclave was held at Rome for the election of a successor to Urban VIII. On 15 September Pamfili was elected, and ascended the papal throne as Innocent X. During his hold of the post the papal relations with France aggravated to such an extent that France invaded the Ecclesiastical States. On the contrary, the relations with Venice became very friendly. Innocent X aided the Venetians financially against the Turks in the struggle for Candia, while the Venetians on their part allowed Innocent to fill the episcopal vacancies in their territory, a right which they had previously claimed for themselves. Innocent X, as his predecessor Urban VIII, refused to acknowledge the new independent kingdom of Portugal and its newly elected king and did not give his approbation to the bishops nominated by the king. Thus it happened that towards the end of Innocent's pontificate there was only one bishop in the whole of Portugal. Innocent X was often irresolute and suspicious. He died in Rome on January 7, 1655