1631-1632. Oil on canvas. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria. Read Note.
Prince Rupert von der Pfalz (1619-1682) 3rd son of the Elector Palatine Frederick V and Elizabeth, daughter of James VI and I, King of England and Scotland and nephew of Charles I. He fought in the Thirty Years' War against the Imperialists and at Lemgo was taken prisoner and confined for about 3 years at Linz. In 1642, he came to England and was appointed Commander of Horse. He fought in several battles of the Civil War (1642-1646), he was a tough and daring cavalry leader who inspired his man, although he often upset older commanders on his own side. In 1646, after the surrender at Oxford he left the King's service, but in 1648 he accepted the command of part of the English fleet. In 1650, he was attacked by Admiral Robert Blake, who burnt or sank most of his vessels. He escaped with the remnants of his fleet to the West Indies, where with his brother Prince Maurice he supported himself by seizing English and other merchants. Since 1653 he lived in France until the Restoration. He served under Duke of York (future James VII and I) and in naval operation against Dutch. He was one of the founders of the Hudson's Bay Company. He invented an improved gunpowder and an alloy called "Prince's metal".