1548. Oil on canvas. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia. Read Note.
Pope Paul III, named Allessandro Farnese (1468-1549), pope from 1534, was a Tuscan. One of his first acts as a pope was to give cardinals' hats to two of his young grandsons, and throughout his reign he labored to advance his bastard son Pier Luigi Farnese and his four grandsons. He created Duchy of Parma and Piacenza for his grandson Ottavio, who was married to the illegitimate daughter of Emperor Charles V Margaret. In 1538 Paul III issued the bull of excommunication and deposition against Henry VIII of England, and also the bull instituting the order of the Jesuits in 1540. He organized the Inquisition in Rome.
See: Titian. Portrait of Pope Paul III without a Cap. Pope Paul III and His Grandsons Ottavio and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese