Peter Paul Rubens.
Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry.
1627-1630. Oil on canvas. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. More. [Order a Print]
, known as Henry of Navarre (1553-1610) king of France from 1589, the first of the Bourbon dynasty, headed the French Protestants. He was spared during the St. Bartholomew Day Massacre of Huguenots only because he was married to Margaret of Valois, sister of Charles IX and Henri III. For three years he was a captive of the French court, but then managed to escape and again headed the Protestants. As a result of intrigues and wars, which he successfully won, he managed to become the King of France. Though he adopted Catholicism, he issued edits to protect the rights of Protestant minority. In 1600 he married his second wife Marie de'Medici, by whom he had several children, Louis XIII and Henrietta Maria among them. See: Peter Paul Rubens. The Triumph Entrance of Henry IV into Paris.