1630. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. More.
(c. 287-212 BC) Greek mathematician, born in Syracuse, the most celebrated of ancient mathematicians and one of the most intellectually powerful mathematicians of all time. He discovered the formulae for the area and volumes of spheres, cylinders, parabolas, and other plane and solid figures. He founded the science of hydrostatics, studying the equilibrium positions of floating bodies of various shapes. His astronomical work is lost. Many of his works survived only in Arabic translation. He was killed at the siege of Syracuse by a Roman soldier, whose challenge he ignored being absorbed in a mathematical problem