1931. The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. Read Note.
GOELRO is Lenin’s plan for electrification of all Russia. It was adopted in December 1920. The plan identified electrification as the basis for the development of the national economy in the USSR. Hundreds of thousands of prisoners in the USSR were worked to death to fulfill this plan.
See: Pavel Filonov. GOELRO (Lenin's Plan for the Electrification of Russia).
The History of the Gulag : From Collectivization to the Great Terror by Oleg Khlevniuk, Vadim Staklo. Yale University Press, 2004.
Gulag: Life And Death Inside The Soviet Concentration Camps 1917-1990 by Tomasz Kizny. Firefly Books Ltd , 2004.
The Economics of Forced Labor: The Soviet Gulag by Robert Conquest (Foreword), Paul R. Gregory (Editor), Valery Lazarev (Editor). Hoover Institution Press, 2003.