1812. Oil on canvas. The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia. Read Note.
Anne Louise Germaine Necker, Madame de Stael (1766-1817), French writer, was the only child of the financier and statesman Jacques Necker. She married the Baron of Stael-Holstein in 1786, then the Swedish Ambassador to Paris. The marriage was unhappy, although they had a son and two daughters. She had many love affairs, her brilliant salon became a center for political discussions, but with the Revolution and her father's fall she was compelled to leave Paris. She returned to Paris in 1795, 1797 and 1802. In 1803 she was ordered by Napoleon to keep no less than 40 leagues away from Paris and she left France for 10 years of exile. She lived in Germany, in England and in Russia. In 1814, she returned on the invitation of Louis XVIII. Her main works are Literature et ses rapports avec les institutions sociales (1800), Delphine (1802), Corinne (1807), De l' Allemagne (1810). After her death, her son and daughters published her unfinished Considerations sur la Revolution francaise (1818) and Dix Annees d'exil (1821)